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The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) generates state-level estimates for 23 measures of substance use and mental health problems for four age groups: the entire state population over the age of 12 (12+); individuals age 12 to 17; individuals age 18 to 25; and individuals age 26 and older (26+). Since state estimates of substance use and abuse were first generated using the combined 2002-2003 NSDUHs and continuing until the most recent state estimates based on the combined 2005-2006 surveys, rates of several drug use measures in Kansas have been consistently at or below the national rates for all age groups. These include past month and past year marijuana use and past month use of any illicit drug. Rates of alcohol use have been more variable across both time and among age groups. For example, while rates of past month alcohol use for the State population age 12 and older and age 26 and older have been at or below the national rates, the rates for individuals age 12 to 17 and those 18 to 25 have consistently been above national rates.
Abuse and Dependance
Questions in NSDUH are used to classify persons as being dependent on or abusing specific substances based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Rates of past year alcohol dependence have generally been at or above the national rates, especially for the age groups 12 to 17 and 18 to 25 (Chart 1).Rates of past year drug dependence, however, have generally been at or below the national rates (Chart 2).
Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities
According to the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS),2 the number of treatment facilities in Kansas has increased from 182 in 2002, to 236 in 2006. Of the 236 facilities responding to the 2006 survey, nearly half (116 or 49%) were private nonprofit facilities, and 85 (36%) were private for-profit facilities.
Although facilities may offer more than one modality of care, in 2006 the majority of facilities (226 or 96%) offered some form of outpatient treatment, and 37 facilities (16%) offered some form of residential care.
Five facilities offered an opioid treatment program, and 27 physicians and 8 treatment programs were certified to provide buprenorphine for opiate addiction.In 2006, 50 percent of all facilities (118) received some form of Federal, State, county, or local government funds, and 97 facilities (41%) had agreements or contracts with managed care organizations for the provision.
State treatment data for substance use disorders are derived from two primary sources�''an annual one-day census in N-SSATS and annual treatment admissions from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).
In the 2006 N-SSATS survey, Kansas showed an one-day total of 10,470 residents in treatment, the majority of whom (9,578 or 91%) were in outpatient treatment. Of the total number of clients in treatment on this date, 1,488 (14%) were under the age of 18.Chart 3 shows the percent of admissions mentioning particular drugs or alcohol at the time of admission.
Across the last 14 years, there has been a steady decline in the number of admissions mentioning alcohol and increases in the mentions of cocaine and marijuana. The largest increase is seen in the mentions of methamphetamine, which rose from 3 percent in 1992, to 25 percent in 2006.Across the years for which TEDS data are available, Kansas has seen a substantial shift in the constellation of problems present at treatment admission. Alcohol-only admissions have declined from 44 percent of all admissions in 1992, to 16 percent in 2006. Concomitantly, drug-only admissions have doubled from 12 percent in 1992, to 27 percent in 2006 (Chart 4).
Unmet Need For Treatment
NSDUH defines unmet treatment need as an individual who meets the criteria for abuse of or dependence on illicit drugs or alcohol according to the DSM-IV, but who has not received specialty treatment for that problem in the past year.Rates of unmet need for drug treatment have generally been among the lowest5 in the country (Chart 5), and rates of unmet need for alcohol treatment have generally been at or above the national rates (Chart 6).